Gudmundsson, A., Drymoni, K., Browning, J., Acocella, V., Amelung, F., Bonali, F. L., Elshaafi, A., Galindo, I., Geshi, N., Geyer, A., Heap, M. J., Karaoğlu, Ö., Kusumoto, S., Marti, J., Pinel, V., Tibaldi, A., Thordarson, T., & Walter, T. R. (2022). Volcanotectonics: the tectonics and physics of volcanoes and their eruption mechanics. Bulletin of Volcanology, 84(8), 72. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00445-022-01582-4
The physical processes that operate within, and beneath, a volcano control the frequency, duration, location and size of volcanic eruptions. Volcanotectonics focuses on such processes, combining techniques, data, and ideas from structural geology, tectonics, volcano deformation, physical volcanology, seismology, petrology, rock and fracture mechanics and classical physics. A central aim of volcanotectonics is to provide sufficient understanding of the internal processes in volcanoes so that, when combined with monitoring data, reliable forecasting of eruptions, vertical (caldera) and lateral (landslide) collapses and related events becomes possible. To gain such an understanding requires knowledge of the material properties of the magma and the crustal rocks, as well as the associated stress fields, and their evolution. The local stress field depends on the properties of the layers that constitute the volcano and, in particular, the geometric development of its shallow magma chamber. During this decade an increasing use of data from InSAR, pixel offset and structure-from-motion, as well as dense, portable seismic networks will provide further details on the mechanisms of volcanic unrest, magma-chamber rupture, the propagation of magma-filled fractures (dikes, inclined sheets and sills) and lateral and vertical collapse. Additionally, more use will be made of accurate quantitative data from fossil and active volcanoes, combined with realistic numerical, analytical and machine-learning studies, so as to provide reliable models on volcano behaviour and eruption forecasting.