Campeny, M., Menéndez, I., Ibáñez-Insa, J., Rivera-Martínez, J., Yepes, J., Álvarez-Pousa, S., Méndez-Ramos, J., & Mangas, J. (2023). The ephemeral fumarolic mineralization of the 2021 Tajogaite volcanic eruption (La Palma, Canary Islands, Spain). Scientific Reports, 13(1), 6336. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-023-33387-6
The present work aims to characterize the ephemeral mineral assemblage related to the fumarolic fields of the Tajogaite volcano, formed in 2021 in La Palma Island (Canary Islands, Spain). A set of 73 samples was obtained after two sampling campaigns in different fumarole sectors of the studied area. Mineralization related to these fumaroles formed efflorescent patches located at variable distance from the main volcanic craters. Distal patches are predominantly whitish, while in the vicinities they typically show yellowish to orange colours. Field observations also revealed that fumaroles usually occur in elevated topographic areas as well as over fractured and porous volcanic pyroclastic materials. The mineralogical and textural characterisation of the Tajogaite fumaroles unfolds a complex mineral assemblage, comprising cryptocrystalline phases related to low (< 200 °C) and medium temperature (200–400 °C) conditions. In Tajogaite, we propose a classification of three different fumarolic mineralization types: (1) fluorides and chlorides located in proximal fumarolic areas (~ 300–180 °C); (2) native sulphur associated with gypsum, mascagnite and salammoniac (~ 120–100 °C) and (3) sulphates and alkaline carbonates typically occurred in distal fumarolic areas (< 100 °C). Finally, we present a schematic model of the formation of Tajogaite fumarolic mineralization and their compositional evolution developed during the cooling of the volcanic system.